A paper published by the NanoRelease Food Additive project has been published by Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology. It is entitled Mammalian gastrointestinal tract parameters modulating the integrity, surface properties, and absorption of food-relevant nanomaterials, and is an open-access article. NIA is one of the partners of the NanoRelease project.
The article ‘summarizes gastro-intestinal conditions influencing the absorption of nanomaterial entities in vivo’, by which it provides both a broad overview and specific examples of nanoscale titanium dioxide, nanoscale silicon dioxide and cellulose nanomaterials. These three were chosen by the project as they ‘may have potential uses or presence in food, reflect a range of material characteristics including release potential and solubility, are of interest to various stakeholders, and are being considered for further efforts to develop measurement methods’.
According to the project’s findings, ‘direct and indirect evidence confirms that salt concentration, pH, and biochemical in the luminal fluid matrix are key in determining the integrity, aggregation, and surface properties of food-relevant nanoparticles, and therefore important in determining their absorption into systemic circulation’; furthermore ‘physical forces, digestive enzymes, and microbes may also have impacts’. Nevertheless the team concluded that ‘further research is required to fill data gaps on the full spectrum of potentially food-relevant nanomaterials’ - the knowledge gap questions phrased by the authors are:
- Among physical forces, osmotic concentration, pH, digestive enzymes, other biochemicals, and commensal microbes, which GI luminal parameters are the strongest inducers of any changes observed in the size, shape, surface properties, and surface corona of NMs?
- Is the size, shape, and surface properties of the full range of potentially food-relevant NMs modified in the GI luminal milieu, or only certain categories of NMs?
- What is the difference in percent absorption through the GI tract epithelium of NMs with different physicochemical properties?
- Through which GI tract organs and epithelial cell subsets does the absorption of NMs of different chemical makeup occur?
- What inherent properties of NMs of different chemical makeup determine their percent absorption through mucus and epithelial cells?
- Does the percent absorption of a given NM differ from the mass-balanced percent absorption of the bulk or ionic form of the same chemical?
Follow this link to read the full article.